Monday, May 16, 2016

Sources of Citizen Science Funding (Part 1)

Photo Courtesy: FrankieLeon
Last year I set out to describe the many ways citizen science can provide economic value and earn money for citizen scientists to expand their efforts.  That effort continues, but it doesn't address the main CURRENT source of citizen science funding...the government.  So it's important to start looking at where it is coming from and where it is going.

The first place many people look is on the CitizenScience.gov web site which hosts a searchable catalog of all Federal crowdsourcing and citizen science projects.  While this is a great resource for people looking for existing projects to join (and which I will also be writing about in the future), it's not a source for funding new ideas.  So we need to find a different strategy.

As a former Federal employee my next thought is to review all the grants and contracts awarded by Uncle Sam over the last four years.  All of this information is publicly available through the government's transparency website USASpending.  Not only does it provide funding agency, amount, and summary description, it also provides a lot of secondary information such as the type of organization receiving the funds, pricing terms, and option years.  But there have been long-standing data problems with the site; these are issues I worked with a lot in my former career and which I'm hoping to minimize during these analyses.  There are also just inherent problems of identifying something as a "Citizen Science" award when public participation is only part of the award, or when they are developing tools that may (or may not) be useful to citizen scientists for future work, or when they are simply using data first developed by citizen scientists.  So while there is much to learn it can't be considered a definitive source.

For those who wish to "play along at home", the data sets for this and related analyses are available online here (use the worksheet "All Contracts").

Findings and Discussion:
Although U.S. Federal government support for citizen science contract awards is very low, this is only a small slice of the potential support it could receive.  As both a new(-ish) field and a research area, citizen science is not well-suited for contractual support.  Under government rules, contracts are reserved for organizations providing goods or services directly to the government as part of  "acquisition".  This is different from grants and cooperative agreements which provide "assistance" to organizations doing work for the general benefit of society, but do not provide a direct benefit to the government.  This is like the difference between the government buying a pick-up truck for use by rangers in a national park, and supporting research on ways to improve pick-up truck fuel efficiency.  Both are good things for government to do, but only one benefits government directly.  So citizen science (much like other research endeavors) may receive much more funding through grants.  That will be the subject of a future blog post. 

Additionally, based on the data it would appear that nearly all these awards were openly competed, however, there is no information on the RFP or solicitation numbers associated with those competitions.  This is interesting information that I'd like to include so others may take advantage of it.  Unfortunately since that data is not here it will need to be pulled from another data source and will also be the subject of a future blog post.

Initial Results:
During this four-year period only a surprisingly small number of contracts were awarded to support citizen science; less than one million dollars per year.  And of those almost all of the money came from NASA for it's astronomy-based programs (including support for various Zooniverse projects like Disk Detective).  And the money went to teams of existing (professional) research teams at large research institutions, not to citizen scientists or to directly support work by individuals.  Instead the support was for more "systemic" programs that build up the field in general or use citizen science data.

In summary:
  • Approximately $3.6 million was awarded in either base or potential option years, for a total of approximately $900,000 per year.
  • There were 16 unique awards made (four per year) at an average size of , with an average size of approximately $240,000.
  • The primary funding agencies were:
    • NASA: 11 awards worth $3,491,802
    • Department of the Interior: 3 awards worth $27,196
    • EPA: 1 award worth $3,460
  • All but one award was made to a large research university/foundation or large non-profit organization.
Methods:
  1. Perform Advanced Search at www.USASpending.gov for all awards with permutations of the terms "Citizen Science", "Citizen Scientist", "PPSR", and "Public Participation in Scientific Research", under the following parameters:
    • All contracts, grants, and subawards
    • Fiscal years 2012-2015 (full FY2016 data is not yet available)
  2. Combine full results of all searches into a single spreadsheet, while maintaining the search term and source file for each listing, and separating by assistance awards (grants), subawards, and acquisition contracts.
  3. Review all non-monetary transactions for potential data errors.  In some cases a contract would come up with no dollars attached, and upon further review in USASpending a grant using the same Federal award ID number would appear with money attached.  In these cases the award was presumably miscoded by type and the new transactions were added to the spreadsheet.
  4. Eliminate all remaining non-monetary transactions, such as no-cost extensions.
  5. Review the project descriptions of each award to ensure they are actually associated (in some meaningful way) with citizen science.
Conclusion:
While Federal contracts are an available source of citizen science funding, they are not ideally suited for these projects and agencies have not used this vehicle frequently over the last four years.  Instead we need to continue looking at other alternatives, such as Federal assistance funding, as well as funding from State/local governments as well as private sources.  So our research will continue over the next few weeks to identify more promising options for everyone.


- First in an occasional series

871 comments:

  1. Replies
    1. your posted blog is really very nice.$1 Hosting and I am so happy to visit here.

      Delete
  2. Thanks for sharing the information. It is very useful for my future. keep sharing
    monkey go happy| yahtzee with buddies| | mahjong | | defendyournuts 2| superfighters 2 |

    ReplyDelete
  3. The government should invest more to improve the quality of the process of collecting citizen funding. There are many reasons why the citizen scientists did not figure out the actual scenario of the current situation. They want to write my dissertation on the previous history of the citizen life and the citizen science. Here the citizen scientists could help to accomplish all the required activities with the help of the government.

    ReplyDelete
  4. I hope the government will be polite enough to fund your researches because a lot of people benefit from every research that you post and help find research paper service students with their requirements.

    ReplyDelete
  5. That being said there is just so much weight reduction that you can accomplish by gradually winding along the cove, halting and taking a gander at the boats moving by. What you are hoping to do is get thinner by strolling, not welcome the perspectives! http://www.mordocrosswords.com/2016/08/walk-unevenly.html

    ReplyDelete
  6. Download good application to unzip your document using zarchiver pro apk latest version.

    ReplyDelete
  7. I definitely enjoying every little bit of it. It is a great website and nice share:

    ReplyDelete
  8. Very good. you are the winner. Do not forget update new information regularly. thank
    - hotmail login

    ReplyDelete
  9. Play hd movies and shows on smartphone device.

    ReplyDelete
  10. Thanks for magnificent info I was looking for this info for my mission.

    ReplyDelete
  11. Great site and looking forward to read more.

    ReplyDelete
  12. The sources you shared to us is really appreciable.
    Hotel Escorts in Jaipur

    ReplyDelete
  13. Good to see this amazing article which perfectly Sources of Citizen Science Funding. Thanks a lot for providing this artist.
    Escorts in Delhi

    ReplyDelete
  14. This was actually what i was looking for, and i am glad to came here! Thank you very much
    Cookie Clicker
    Cookie Clicker play
    Cookie Clicker game
    Cookie Clicker online

    ReplyDelete
  15. This was actually what i was looking for, and i am glad to came here! Thank you very much

    ReplyDelete
  16. This is best organization for people, they can get get good profit here.
    Call Girls in Manali

    ReplyDelete
  17. Great delivery. Solid arguments. Keep up the great effort.
    Manali Hot Escorts

    ReplyDelete
  18. Thanks because of this! I've been searching all more than the web for that details.
    Emergency Lifting Coverage

    ReplyDelete
  19. Thank you for sharing! I'm looking forward to see part 2 of the series.
    dog breeds

    ReplyDelete
  20. Hi! Thanks for the great information you have provided! You have touched on crucuial points!

    ReplyDelete
  21. Thank you for sharing the Science Funding Part 1. Waiting for another part 2.

    If You are looking for MSBTE Result Winter 2016 then you must follow few simple steps to get your Result Online.

    How Should I know to find the MSBTE Winter 2016 Result ? Most of students are searching for the Date of Result.
    Maharashtra State Board of Technical Education will declare the MSBTE Winter 2016 Result

    ReplyDelete
  22. Create new yahoo account and then sign in to your account to send emails.

    ReplyDelete
  23. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  24. Very helpful post and informative thanks for sharing with us

    ReplyDelete
  25. There is more information for us.I really impress to visit your website.It is so good.Thanks for sharing with us.
    Women Escorts Services in Delhi

    ReplyDelete
  26. can't wait to see more posts like this one in the future!

    ReplyDelete
  27. Great stuff,i glad to be here read this amazing thoughts. Thanks for share with us.
    College Escorts in Jaipur

    ReplyDelete
  28. Nice stuff, I just amazed to see this great stuff. I have got here amazing stuff, Thanks for share that.
    College Escorts in Jaipur

    ReplyDelete
  29. Interesting post! This is really interesting information for me. Thanks for sharing!
    - www.hotmail.com
    - hotmail login
    - hotmail sign up
    - hotmail sign in

    ReplyDelete
  30. Replies
    1. I am very much happy to find this post. I have read this post very carefully i like this post. Thanks for such a great post.
      Call Girls Bangalore

      Delete
  31. Replies
    1. Absolutely love these inspo pictures! They just make me want my own mood board!
      Call Girls Service Goa

      Delete
  32. Hello there, just became alert to your blog through Google, and found that it is truly informative. I am gonna watch out for brussels. I will be grateful if you continue this in future.
    Gurgaon Call Girls

    ReplyDelete
  33. it is very amazing stuff.it is simple amazing stuff.thanks for sharing such a amazing content.

    Top laptop repairing institute delhi

    ReplyDelete
  34. Extremely Nice These are a portion of the solid choices, proposed for your utilization. Your blog posting in exceptionally intriguing for sharing. obat limpa bengkak

    ReplyDelete
  35. Your information is good and friendly this article very helpful for me. Thanks for the post.!
    Hottest Call Girls in Jaipur

    ReplyDelete
  36. Cool application for getting more relax on android devices Cinema Box For Android love this application.

    ReplyDelete
  37. This is amazing! thank you for sharing this post.
    Jaipur Call Girl

    ReplyDelete
  38. Thanks, you guys that is a great explanation. keep up the good work in your granite blog !
    Escort Service Gurgaon

    ReplyDelete
  39. This one is really such a amazing post and i am so delighted to be here and to read this perfect post.
    Call Girls in Bangalore

    ReplyDelete
  40. What a nice blog here is good information for us it is great thanks for sharing with us.
    Model Escorts Service Chandigarh

    ReplyDelete
  41. JSC Result 2017. Do you want to get your jsc exam result 2017. So you can easily able to get it.
    Because all education board has published their result in same day.Dhaka Education Board,Rajshahi Board,Chittagong Board,Dinajpur Board education board and other education board has published their result. Visit below to collect all education board JSC Result 2017


    JSC Routine 2017

    JSC Routine 2017 PDF

    JSC Result 2017

    JSC Result 2017

    ReplyDelete
  42. We carefully select our girls for serving, as we value and care for our pictures and we promise you the best: selective girls’ worth of the excellence can only try to end up a part of this group. Call Girls in Bangalore

    ReplyDelete
  43. I can feel that the articles contained in this blog is so interesting. I also get a variety informasin, thanks.
    Obat Disentri, Cara Menyembuhkan BAB Berdarah Dan Berlendir Secara Alamir

    ReplyDelete
  44. Here is more information for us thank for sharing with us.
    Chandigarh Escorts service

    ReplyDelete
  45. I read it entire and going to impart to my social companions. I making the most of your article and wanting to revise it all alone blog

    free animated desktop wallpaper

    ReplyDelete
  46. Very important article. Thank you so much for this. National Univerity NU Honours 1st Year Result 2017
    And NU Honours first Year Result 2017 has published. Visit here to collect your NU Honours 4th Year Result 2017 and NU Honours Final Year Result 2017

    ReplyDelete
  47. This is cool thanks for sharing, This is nice i Agree with you thanks for sharing this nice article to use, this is really Great. This is MSBTE our official site is http://www.msbte.info in this site we provide details about maharashtra State Board Of Technical Education. Thanks http://onlineresult.msbte.info. Students can also download their time table http://www.msbte.info/2017/02/msbte-timetable-summer-2017.html and model question papers are provided here http://www.msbte.info/2016/10/msbte-model-answer-paper-winter-summer.html the main part is msbte Sample question papers which helps all the students to Study well for their exams www.msbte.info/2017/03/msbte-sample-question-paper.html

    Anna university:
    Get Anna university results from here http://www.auedu4u.com/2016/03/AnnaUniversity-results-1st-2nd-3rd-4th-5th-6th-7th-8th-semester.html
    http://coe1.annaunivedu.co.in/2017/01/anna-university-results-1st-2nd-3rd-4th-5th-6th-7th-8th-semester-results.html Anna university results 2017
    And Vtu results http://results.vtu.org.in/ most fast loading website for VTU and Other Educational updates.
    Also Check http://coe1.annaunivedu.co.in and http://www.auedu4u.com for Anna university updates. most useful data(educational)

    ReplyDelete
  48. This guide is awesome. You covered almost all the crucial points . thank you sharing this article
    destined to be yours
    pinoy tv teleserye

    ReplyDelete
  49. really good one to have information like this cinema box for android to watch movies online and lets wait for another good one to see the app.

    ReplyDelete
  50. Thank you for your analysis. It is new and different aspects I know before. Looking forward to reading more of your posts
    bloxorz

    ReplyDelete
  51. You have done very well job about Sources of Citizen Science Funding in the part one. I had great time to read this topic.
    Aadhar Card Date Of Birth Kaise Change Kare

    ReplyDelete
  52. Cartoon HD is a very popular app as you know. we can watch animated videos, movies on your smartphone.
    If you are a android user then you can easily download this app.
    You can also use this app if you are a iOS user. For more details check the process of download Download Cartoon HD Apk

    ReplyDelete
  53. We have engaging model escorts in Connaught Place who can keep your senses pleased once you in person meet one in every of the companions indirect hours along. you see one in every of the chosen partner
    Spa Connaught Place Escorts
    Spa karolbagh Escorts
    Spa Lajpat Nagar Escorts
    Spa Laxmi Nagar Escorts
    Spa Malviya Nagar Escorts

    ReplyDelete
  54. You should book an appointment about a week or two before you want their services. So, next time when you visit to the city, don’t forget to hire services of those escorts in New Friends Colony
    Spa New Friends Colony Escorts
    Spa Paharganj Escorts
    Spa Pitampura Escorts
    Female Spa Escorts Punjabi Bagh

    ReplyDelete
  55. Each and every escort company is worth visiting to know their services. The websites are a wonderful place to see their services. Check their different pages. The reputed escort companies are sincere about whatever they provide to their customers on their site
    Independent Escorts Ahmedabad
    Female Escorts Ahmedabad

    ReplyDelete
  56. We have engaging model escorts in Connaught Place who can keep your senses pleased once you in person meet one in every of the companions indirect hours along. you see one in every of the chosen partner
    Spa Connaught Place Escorts
    Spa karolbagh Escorts
    Spa Lajpat Nagar Escorts
    Spa Laxmi Nagar Escorts
    Spa Malviya Nagar Escorts

    ReplyDelete
  57. Each and every escort company is worth visiting to know their services. The websites are a wonderful place to see their services. Check their different pages. The reputed escort companies are sincere about whatever they provide to their customers on their site
    Independent Escorts Ahmedabad
    Female Escorts Ahmedabad

    ReplyDelete
  58. There is not a single person in the world that does not have some sort of fantasy they reverie about satisfying. Imagine finding yourself in Ahmedabad and desiring you could prudently fulfill that desire
    Ahmedabad Escorts
    Escorts In Ahmedabad
    Escorts Ahmedabad

    ReplyDelete
  59. This gift has been provided to these escort females with a body maintenance and sexy look. There are certain activities that need to be done by the escort girls to satisfy the customer according to their need.
    Escorts Ahmedabad
    Escorts In Ahmedabad
    Escorts Ahmedabad

    ReplyDelete
  60. A call girl does sexual things to earn money and therefore they are prohibited. Whereas, an escort is much like an accompanying person, and the money is paid for the company and not for physical contact even if it takes place. That is the reason why escort services are legal.
    Escorts Ahmedabad
    Ahmedabad Escorts
    Ahmedabad Escorts
    Escorts Ahmedabad

    ReplyDelete
  61. Nice Blog.Thank you for Sharing.helpful article once and pardon me permission to share also here :
    isi ulang toner fuji xerox |Refill Toner Jakarta |Refill Toner Murah

    ReplyDelete
  62. I read some articles on this site and I think your blog is really interesting and has great information. Thank you for your sharing.

    ReplyDelete
  63. I needed to send you the tiny remark so as to say thank you over again over the amazing things you’ve shared at this time. obat ginjal bocor I would not joke about this. obat darah kental I must recommend your website to friends. Good Luck obat sinusitis

    ReplyDelete
  64. 24/7 Zirakpur Escorts Services open 24hrs.Contact us to hire Zirakpur Escorts Provider.Find 100% Independent Escorts profiles and reviews.

    ReplyDelete
  65. I can feel that the articles contained in this blog is so interesting. I also get a variety informasin, thanks.
    cara mengatasi menstruasi yang berlebihan

    ReplyDelete
  66. This is cool thanks for sharing, This is nice i Agree with you thanks for
    sharing this nice article to use, this is really Great.virtualedge

    ReplyDelete
  67. Your article is very good and useful, thank you very much for this content.

    ReplyDelete
  68. Your article is very good and useful, thank you very much for this content.usps tracking

    ReplyDelete
  69. Nice blog here! Also your web site loads up very fast! What host are you using?
    Dentist in Dubai
    Veneers in Dubai
    Dental Clinic in Dubai
    Top dentist in Dubai

    ReplyDelete
  70. I read this article. I think You put a lot of effort to create this article. I appreciate your work Georgetown TX Home Builders

    ReplyDelete
  71. Thank you for sharing such a good content.

    ReplyDelete

  72. CLA Safflower Oil A long way from being only an instrument workman, quick, in this way, fat misfortune is not an exceptionally sound process. In any case, the fast loss of fat - there are tips and activities.
    http://www.supplementadvise.com/cla-safflower-oil/

    ReplyDelete
  73. Hi I found your site by mistake when i was searching yahoo for this acne issue, I must say your site is really helpful I also love the design, its amazing!. I don’t have the time at the moment to fully read your site but I have bookmarked it and also add your RSS feeds. I will be back in a day or two. thanks for a great site.Four Seasons Condos for Sale

    ReplyDelete
  74. Find best Jobs in Pakistan, jobs listings and job opportunities on onlinepkjobs.com
    Browse more than 100K ... apply for free! onlinepkjobs.com is Pakistan's leading job website
    you can find Non profit jobs Here.

    ReplyDelete

  75. Learn how to stay Healthy workout, get exercise,
    and improve your workouts. EverydayHealth.com is the leading source of online health news.

    ReplyDelete
  76. Interesting article! Thank you for sharing them! I hope you will continue to have similar posts to share with everyone!

    ReplyDelete

  77. Well composed articles like yours renews my faith in today’s writers. You’ve written information I can ultimately agree with as well as make use of.

    Call girls in five star hotel in Delhi

    ReplyDelete
  78. Clipping path is the great contribution are doing a lot of useful and engaging design in all kinds of industry design.

    ReplyDelete
  79. Impressive web site, Distinguished feedback that I can tackle. Im moving forward and may apply to my current job as a pet sitter, which is very enjoyable, but I need to additional expand. Top Dentists In Dubai
    Invisalign Treatment in Dubai
    Dental Implants Dubai
    Dental Bridges in Dubai
    Veneers in Dubai

    ReplyDelete
  80. Great article and straight to the point. I don’t know if this is truly the best place to ask but do you people have any thoughts on where to hire some professional writers

    ReplyDelete
  81. This is truly a great read for me. I have bookmarked it and I am looking forward to reading new articles. Keep up the good work!.

    download mp3 | chris brown music mp3 | Drake music mp3 | mp3 download

    ReplyDelete
  82. We can have a
    Mumbai escort on your front door within an hour usually and we can guarantee that she will certainly be among the best ladies that you have actually ever before strolled down the road with. Whether it is a company function, family members or other type or event or you simply wish to strike the town with a beautiful lady, after that we are here for you.Mumbai escort

    ReplyDelete
  83. Thanks for providing such nice information to us. It provides such amazing information on care/as well Health/. The post is really helpful and very much thanks to you. The information can be really helpful on health, care as well as on examhelp/ tips. The post is really helpful.
    CBSE 10th result 2017- CBSE X class result
    MHT CET Result 2017

    BVP CET Result 2017

    Assam CEE Answer key 2017

    ReplyDelete
  84. Hi, My name is Hina Sharma, I am independent Model in Dubai.I am serving my clients from last 2 years. If you want some luxury experience then contact me.

    I provide services in Deira Dubai , JBR , Bur Dubai & Tecom.

    ReplyDelete
  85. BlockSmiths.io provides Blockchain Solutions and Blockchain Applications that make business processes highly efficient and transparent. Get connected with us to know more about blockchain applications and bitcoins. Blockchain Applications

    ReplyDelete
  86. CaLL suzie.in - 09118181868
    BADe-BaDe-BoObBs-TiGtY-MaL
    Lucknow Escort, Call Girls, Lucknow Escort ServiceS,
    It has been for a while, that's entertaining as well as interesting things to consider are different kinds of
    And it is the way through which some of the wonderful things can be found together.
    As the main source of entertainment as well as Suzie Lucknow Escort
    Pleasant service content only found in the city is said to be
    Meaning there is increased importance of far broader escorting services.
    It's best to enjoy meaningful content which means that some of the different source
    As well as entertainment which is why do some wonderful things that have been found to be in existence yet.
    CaLL suzie.in - 09118181868
    Lucknow call Monika 9118181868 Monika Call:- 7O7I3489O3
    http://24callgirls.com/

    ReplyDelete
  87. This article will discuss the 13 categories where a child can be found eligible for special education services. Also discussed is information that will help you determine what category your child's disability fits in. Special Education Personnel are not allowed to deny particular special education services due to the child's label or classification; though they may try often!http://www.how-todo.xyz/

    ReplyDelete
  88. The US Open: You need to know the US Open Golf Championship will be the 117th US Open Golf 2017, US Open Schedule to be played June 15–18 at Erin Hills in Erin, Wisconsin, northwest of Milwaukee. For so many years, US Open Live everyone knew what to expect US Open Golf Live and US Open Live Stream. For the second time in three years, the 2017 US Open Golf is headed to a course that has never hosted a major. It will be the first US Golf Open in 25 years that doesn't have the names Tiger Woods or Phil Mickelson among the starting times US Golf Open 2017. Woods is missing all the majors for the second straight year because of a fourth back surgery, which was a month before his DUI arrest in Florida 2017 US Open Golf Live. Mickelson US Open Golf Live Stream, with a record six runner-up finishes in the only major he hasn't won, said he plans to skip because his daughter's high school graduation is the same day as the opening round. US Open TV Coverage and US Open 2017 Results


    US Open Golf 2017
    US Open Golf 2017 Live
    US Open Golf 2017 Live Stream


    US Open Championship
    US Open Championship Live
    US Open Championship 2017

    ReplyDelete
  89. The US Open: You need to know the US Open Golf Championship will be the 117th US Open Golf 2017, US Open Schedule to be played June 15–18 at Erin Hills in Erin, Wisconsin, northwest of Milwaukee. For so many years, US Open Live everyone knew what to expect US Open Golf Live and US Open Live Stream. For the second time in three years, the 2017 US Open Golf is headed to a course that has never hosted a major. It will be the first US Golf Open in 25 years that doesn't have the names Tiger Woods or Phil Mickelson among the starting times US Golf Open 2017. Woods is missing all the majors for the second straight year because of a fourth back surgery, which was a month before his DUI arrest in Florida 2017 US Open Golf Live. Mickelson US Open Golf Live Stream, with a record six runner-up finishes in the only major he hasn't won, said he plans to skip because his daughter's high school graduation is the same day as the opening round. US Open TV Coverage and US Open 2017 Results


    US Open Golf 2017
    US Open Golf 2017 Live
    US Open Golf 2017 Live Stream


    US Open Championship
    US Open Championship Live
    US Open Championship 2017

    ReplyDelete
  90. Watch Online Bollywood Movies, it is a great fun and we take care of your fun so we upload latest and oldest Bollywood movies.
    we have all types of dubbed movies on our website in the best HD

    ReplyDelete
  91. Hi am Kavya Sharma, we are providing Independent Delhi Escort girl, who offers dazzling hot Delhi Escorts Service, incall or outcall services both to complete your dreams in real. Delhi escorts |Delhi escorts Service|Escorts in Delhi |Independent escorts service in Delhi |Escorts service in Delhi|

    ReplyDelete
  92. your science fuding sources are awesome keep sharing check this out : http://www.aadityaoverseasconsultants.com

    ReplyDelete
  93. This is truly a great read for me. I have bookmarked it and I am looking forward to reading new articles. Keep up the good work!.

    download mp3

    ReplyDelete
  94. Our title is Divya Rana, I'm 22 Years aged and 5ft 6in, we've been operating as Impartial Ludhiana Escorts regarding 12 months and i definitely think it's great, wefeel simple and enjoyable to work well with we adore placing most adore and work to cause you to pleased. We perform difficult to obtain the comments that i requirements until I Have accomplished that and we won’t quit! Our Definitive Goal is to allow it to be large and also to be effective in Ludhiana Escorts!Ludhiana Escorts Service
    Ludhiana Escort Service
    Ludhiana call girls
    Ludhiana Female Escorts
    call girls in Ludhiana
    Ludhiana Escorts Agency
    Ludhiana Independent Escorts
    Escorts in Ludhiana
    Escorts Service in Ludhiana
    VIP Escorts in Ludhiana
    Independent Escorts in Ludhiana
    Escorts in Ludhiana
    Escorts Agency in Ludhiana
    VIP Escort in Ludhiana
    Ludhiana Escorts Services
    Ludhiana escorts
    Ludhiana escort

    ReplyDelete
  95. An extraordinary thought to praise friendship in an inventive way is make a blurb on Friendship Day this year.

    friendship day 2017

    friendship images

    friendship day pic

    friendship day pics

    friendship day photos
    For some the best sort of Friendship Day festivity is maybe a heart-to-heart converse with a best friend Sharing everything that has made a difference to you and your frinds for so......

    friendship day wallpapers

    photos of friendship

    friendship quotes images


    friendship images hd

    true friendship images


    ReplyDelete
  96. Your article is detailed, thanks to it I solved the problem I am entangled. I will regularly follow your writers and visit this site daily.

    ReplyDelete
  97. This is something what I am looking for. Eventually I got it here. And thanks a lot for this. You may know
    JSC Result 2017 Dinajpur Board has been published today. Do you want to know your result instantly. Click on the official website >>>

    JSC Result 2017 Dinajpur Board

    ReplyDelete
  98. Wow, i read your article is pretty amazing. I was also looking to give the survey at BK which was pretty bad. I checked this website mybkexperiance!. I Learnt a lot here. Mypaydetails!

    ReplyDelete
  99. Wow, i read your article google mail guide is pretty amazing. I was also looking to give the survey at BK which was pretty bad. I checked this website. I Learnt a lot here. Mypaydetails!
    -mybkexperiance!


    ReplyDelete
  100. • You have posted a incredibly detail document. I examine your entire article and I really like it, I actually understand your point of view.

    ReplyDelete
  101. Good article, I've seen many articles today, but only this article is of interest to me, thanks agen judi poker online terpercaya di indonesia

    ReplyDelete
  102. The14th ranked Stanford Cardinal and Rice Owls will travel Allianz Stadium in Sydney, Australia to kick off their College Football season this ..
    Stanford vs Rice Live Stream

    ReplyDelete

  103. Continue writing like this, very informative content, nice way to write, a real pleasur to read ! http://www.sinidomino.com/

    ReplyDelete
  104. This is really a great article and great read for me. It’s my first visit to your blog and i have found it so useful and informative specially this article.
    I have bookmarked it and I am looking forward to reading new articles. Thanks for this article. Keep up the good work!
    Diwali 2017
    Happy Diwali 2017
    Diwali Date 2017
    Diwali Images 2017

    ReplyDelete
  105. Thnaks for your effort on providing a unique and usefull articel for property preservation work order processing services visit here

    ReplyDelete
  106. Awesome blog,thanks for sharing,really very helpful.
    JSC Exam Result 2017

    ReplyDelete
  107. Amazing and intrested article,writing skills are too good.
    LogoDesignCafe Reviews

    ReplyDelete
  108. Nice post. Thank you for the info. Keep it up.

    ReplyDelete
  109. Türkiye'nin en güvenilir hava yolu kargo taşımacılık firması ile verilen hizmetler; acil kargo | uçak kargo | kargo | yurtdışı kargo gönderi seçeneklerinden sizin için en uygun olanı ile kargo gönderebilirsiniz. Teşekkürler admin çok kaliteli bir paylaşım olmuş, emeğinize saygılar.

    ReplyDelete
  110. McAfee provides all round protection not just from malwares or infected files; it defends by blocking all the unwanted threats like phishing, scams. Once you installed your McAfee Retail card through www.mcafee.com/activate, you will get complete protection for your devices. The new McAfee 2016 is fast, simple and next generation security antivirus that provides protection against all kind of online threats. To install McAfee is not quite simple as it seems, during installation much kind of problems exist, it might stops you by creating your McAfee account in Macfee.com/activate or your McAfee product key doesn’t exist. If this kind of issues you are facing, all you need is to take help of McAfee technical support team.

    McAfee Support Toll Free

    ReplyDelete
  111. I just want to say that you shared a really informative article with us.

    ReplyDelete
  112. I just want to say that you shared a really informative article with us.

    ReplyDelete
  113. I was amazed by you. the way you create a website very thorough and good. This is very very impressive. Thank you for sharing hopefully more successful.
    Escort Aerocity

    ReplyDelete
  114. Amazed to be here and want to read this amazing info. Thanks for this interesting article and I would really want to say thanks for this info.
    Aerocity Escorts Service

    ReplyDelete
  115. McAfee provides all round protection not just from malwares or infected files; it defends by blocking all the unwanted threats like phishing, scams. Once you installed your McAfee Retail card through www.mcafee.com/activate, you will get complete protection for your devices. The new McAfee 2016 is fast, simple and next generation security antivirus that provides protection against all kind of online threats. To install McAfee is not quite simple as it seems, during installation much kind of problems exist, it might stops you by creating your McAfee account in Macfee.com/activate or your McAfee product key doesn’t exist. If this kind of issues you are facing, all you need is to take help of McAfee technical support team.

    McAfee Support Toll Free Number

    ReplyDelete
  116. Quickbooks, the most popular accounting software package offers on-premises accounting applications along with cloud-based versions to small and medium-sized businesses. Quickbooks help the users managing business payments, payroll functions, pay bills and much more. Apart from these three, Quickbooks also lets you do so many tasks within the blink of an eye.

    Quickbooks Help Toll Free

    ReplyDelete
  117. TurboTax, the American tax preparation software package comes in a number of versions including, TurboTax Deluxe and TurboTax Premier. This easy-to-use software can be used for both state and federal income tax returns. It also offers additional help to the taxpayers for their self-prepared ITRs by providing Audit Defense from TaxResources, Inc.

    Turbotax Support

    ReplyDelete
  118. Quickbooks, the most popular accounting software package offers on-premises accounting applications along with cloud-based versions to small and medium-sized businesses. Quickbooks help the users managing business payments, payroll functions, pay bills and much more. Apart from these three, Quickbooks also lets you do so many tasks within the blink of an eye.

    Quickbooks Payroll Support

    ReplyDelete
  119. TurboTax, the American tax preparation software package comes in a number of versions including, TurboTax Deluxe and TurboTax Premier. This easy-to-use software can be used for both state and federal income tax returns. It also offers additional help to the taxpayers for their self-prepared ITRs by providing Audit Defense from TaxResources, Inc.

    Turbotax Support Toll-Free

    ReplyDelete
  120. JSC Result 2017 all Education Board Bangladesh http://www.bdexamresult.com/Stay with us for more updates.

    ReplyDelete
  121. JSC Result 2017 all Education Board Bangladesh http://www.bdexamresult.com/Stay with us for more updates.

    ReplyDelete
  122. JSC Result 2017 all Education Board Bangladesh http://www.bdexamresult.com/Stay with us for more updates.

    ReplyDelete
  123. Thank you for your post, I look for such article along time, today i find it finally. this post give me lots of advise it is very useful for me.
    Service of Kapashera Escorts

    ReplyDelete