Becoming a new father has been challenge for me as it is for everyone. There is so much to learn about caring for a child, caring for the new mother, and helping your child not just live, but thrive. Add to that all the personal baggage, as well as societal and psychological expectations, that are brought into parenting, and it can be overwhelming. Fortunately our pediatrician's office has been a great source of information. The doctor's and nurses pull from the latest medical research and their own experience to guide us on our way. But as much as science knows about child development, it becomes quickly clear how much is not known. Even for one of the babies most basic needs...food.
Every one of the 4 million families with newborns must deal with is how to handle bottle feeding (either breast milk or formula). Both are very valuable commodities that you don't want to waste, so the simple question arises of how long a bottle lasts either with or without refrigeration. With nearly every one of the using bottles of some sort you'd think there would be simple answers. But there aren't. So that's where my citizen science background comes in.
In a perfect world my doctors, the American Academy of Pediatrics bible "Your Baby's First Year", or any other authoritative source would have answered this question. But they don't. So we turn to one of the most trusted yet often least reliable sources...the Internet. Which is where I found some of the best information from a blogger who is also a true citizen scientist, whether she knows it or not.
In her post ""The 2 Hour Rule: Is a Bottle Safe When it's been Left Out too Long?" this question is addressed head on.
First she checks with the most authoritative source she can find, the Infant Formula Council. They should have the most expertise on the subject and access to a wide variety of research. The main problem is the potential for bias as a manufacturer's trade group. So she balances that recommendation with one from the non-biased American Academy of Pediatrics. Not only will they give a new perspective, but they represent the collective wisdom and expertise of doctors. Also, between these two, she has looked to the "Experts" for advice and is willing to accept it at face value. However, while both discuss the topic in generalities neither provides a concrete answer. So she must continue looking.
The next step is to review the literature. This is tough to do as an amateur but not impossible. It just takes some persistence with Google or other search engine and then hoping the articles are publicly available (much more on this in a future blog post). But it is not a blind search...it is informed by the dangers described by the "Experts" above. She is not dismissing their concerns, but trusting them and using them as a source for further exploration.
Finally, when all is said and done, she finds a related study on the impacts of time on formula feeding. It's not completely on topic and does not directly answer her question. And it was paid for by a bottle manufacturer. All issues which she notes in the article. But she does present it to inform her final decision.
Sorry, I'm not going to reveal that. You can find the answer yourself here. The point is not whether formula can be used after two hours, or the relative merits versus breast milk. It's to demonstrate some key points I've been trying to make ever since starting this blog.
- Just because you are not a Ph.D. scientist, don't be afraid to ask questions and wade into the debate. It is possible for everyday people to understand, and be part of, the conversation of science.
- Trust but verify the advice of experts. Relying on the knowledge of people studying a specific scientific issue is a vital starting point. You can't just throw away everything science has learned and start on your own. But also don't be afraid to question the experts. They aren't infallible, and haven't always looked at things from every angle. This does not question their authority or integrity, it is the standard due diligence allowed, and required, from every good scientist.
- Be prepared to be wrong. In this case there was no evidence that her approach was harmful to her child. But in reading the article there is every sense she was willing to make a change if the evidence was compelling. That intellectual honesty is crucial for scientists and citizen scientists alike.
In other words, perform your research with a humble confidence. Don't worry that you don't have a degree in child development or have not spent years in medical school. You can still investigate questions for yourself and help us all out. Just make sure to put it on the web so others can take advantage too!